7.04.2006

Entrevista com Tadeu Chiarelli - curador da exposição "Erotica"

- Em primeiro lugar, você diria que toda arte é, em essência, erótica? O artista é alguém que sempre, de uma forma ou de outra, faz de seu trabalho uma sedução
para os sentidos?

Chiarelli - Acho que a arte tem sempre um componente erótico. E não apenas por parte do artista, mas também por parte de quem observa a obra. Existe uma sensualidade que perpassa todas essas relações.

- No andar superior do CCBB temos uma sala temática para o narcisismo; no segundo andar temos o conceito surrealista de Beleza convulsiva, e na sala
do cofre, no subsolo, o tema é a multiplicidade. Qual é a idéia da exposição como um todo?

Chiarelli - A idéia de Erotica é simples: apresentar uma seleção onde a sexualidade e o erotismo foram os propulsores das obras de arte expostas. Não é uma exposição sobre o erotismo. É uma exposição de arte onde o erotismo emerge como elemento estruturador das obras exibidas. Sem dúvida existem salas onde determinadas questões ganham maior visibilidade. No entanto, estive sempre atento para o fato de que, em muitas obras, mais de uma questão erótica pode estar presente. Neste sentido, se você bem perceber, verá que existem contaminações, existe uma fluidez de questões que aparecem em praticamente todas as salas. A começar pelo voyerismo, o exibicionismo e também certos temas tradicionais, constantes nesses casos, como o mito da “bela e da fera”, por exemplo.


- No conjunto exposto em Erotica há uma ênfase no surrealismo, inclusive na concepção da montagem. Podemos dizer que o surrealismo é uma das propostas
artísticas que melhor cumprem esse papel de sedução, de deleite para o espectador?

Chiarelli - O surrealismo, justamente porque teve a questão da sexualidade, via psicanálise, como um dos seus elementos propulsores, foi tomado como linha geral para o desenvolvimento da exposição. O acaso, a associação livre, o automatismo psíquico, a beleza convulsa, o gosto pelo “vulgar”, enfim, vários dos componentes da estética surrealista estão presentes na mostra, conferindo a ela um interesse a meu ver muito diferente daquele que teria se, por exemplo, tivesse um programa mais pautado, por exemplo, no desenvolvimento de uma cronologia.



- Lars von Trier, considerado um dos mais inspirados diretores da atualidade, realizou três filmes pornográficos. A editora Taschen lançou recentemente
"Digital diaries" de Natacha Merritt, uma espécie de diário fotográfico sexual. O artista Jeff Koons filmou a si mesmo na cama com sua esposa, e exibiu como obra
de arte. Contudo, a exposição em cartaz no CCBB optou por uma abordagem bem mais suave, sedutora mas não explícita. Isto posto, o que você acha da fusão que
vem ocorrendo, cada vez mais freqüente, entre alta cultura e pornografia?

Chiarelli - Creio que muitos artistas de formação mais erudita, digamos, se aproximam da pornografia como uma tentativa desesperada de sacudir nossa sociedade, de sacudir nossa capacidade em traduzir todas as manifestações artísticas em produto cultural. Aproximar a arte da pornografia pode servir como uma estratégia para desnaturalizar essa capacidade da nossa sociedade, a partir de imagens que - por mais que o sexo esteja em forte processo de banalização hoje em dia - ainda podem, de alguma maneira desestabilizar algumas de nossas posições de “bom gosto” ou “bom tom”, seja lá o que isso quer dizer, de fato, atualmente.

De alguma maneira, essa tendência está presente na exposição. Não, de fato, como vertente principal. No entanto, chamo sua atenção para as obras de artistas como Picasso, Marquet, Ivan Serpa, Jacques Lebel, Pitágoras e outros que se aproximam de visualidades de extração “baixa”. Eles formam alguns dos pontos altos da mostra.

Porém, o intuito maior de Erotica foi chamar a atenção para outras possibilidades de se pensar o erotismo e o sexo na arte, por meio de obras que explorassem, por exemplo, como o próprio emprego de determinados materiais podem exprimir a sensualidade de uma obra, tanto quanto o próprio tema tratado.

- Você acha, portanto, que esta exposição nos permite perceber a sexualidade na arte como algo que não está restrito ao tema?

Chiarelli – Para responder essa pergunta, lembro-me aqui de alguns exemplos: o desenho de um fauno se masturbando, de Picasso, ou o desenho de um casal copulando de Ismael Nery. Neles, a sensualidade do traço sobre o papel emana uma sensualidade tão potente quanto a imagem que estruturam. O mesmo eu poderia dizer da tela de Visconti, onde uma mulher deitada está representada, ou mesmo o estudo que Rodolpho Bernardelli produziu para a sua “faceira”. No primeiro a sensualidade não está apenas nas formas do corpo da mulher, mas igualmente na própria delicadeza com que o artista tocou todas as partes do corpo da pintura com seu pincel, constituindo uma fina pele sobre o tecido. Ou então, no caso de Bernardelli, como o artista parece ter construído a sensualidade da obra pela própria manipulação da matéria, deixando o registro de suas mãos sobre ela.

Agora uma coisa é preciso ser dita: o curador, por mais que tenha respeito pelo artista, ele sempre está do outro lado, porque está sempre fazendo cultura, enquanto o artista opera na desestabilização da mesma.

O curador tenta traduzir a obra de arte para o campo da cultura e para isso forçosamente tende a restringir seu papel desestruturador. Mas isso é uma outra história.



- E quanto à sensualidade kitsch? Qual a verdadeira distância entre, por exemplo, J. R. Duran (fotógrafo da Playboy) e as obras expostas em Erotica?

Chiarelli - A idéia da exposição foi justamente estabelecer, na medida do possível, um diferencial entre aquilo que o público vai encontrar dentro do Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil daquilo que está à sua espreita nas bancas de jornais, nos arredores, nos out-doors, na tv, etc e tal.

A idéia é educar o olhar do público para que ele entenda que a imagem com carga erótica pode sim transcender o mero estatuto de mercadoria para alcançar um patamar mais amplo de conhecimento do mundo.

As ligações entre o que está dentro e o que está fora do CCBB será feito pela capacidade do visitante em perceber tais diferenças quando ele estiver frente as obras ali expostas. Mas ele também será auxiliado pelo serviço de monitoria da instituição capacitada para estabelecer pontes de conexão entre o universo da arte e o universo das imagens de massa, assim como a série de conferências organizadas pelo Reinaldo Mesquita dará conta de abrir o debate sobre o erotismo para outras esferas da vida dos cidadãos.


- Um dos traços marcantes de nossa época é a presença constante do sexo na mídia, seja em canais de televisão, em revistas, na internet ou nos demais veículos. Você sente que com isso ele se tornou menos interessante ou menos vital? E pode a arte, hoje, fazer com que corpo e espírito caminhem juntos?

Chiarelli - Não acho que essa exposição toda, essa banalização sem medidas do sexo o tenha tornado menos interessante, pelo menos para grande parte das pessoas. Creio, isso sim, que todo esse processo pode levar a resultados não muito salutares, não apenas no plano individual mas aqui pensando também em todo o corpo social. Dentro deste quadro, creio que a exposição Erotica pode servir como um bom antídoto para toda essa banalização, sugerindo que o sexo e que o erotismo no campo de nossa cultura visual podem transcender o papel de mera mercadoria, mero artigo de consumo.

(Erótica está no Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, r. Álvares Penteado 112. Visitação de terça a domingo, das 10h às 21h)

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